
Basic Electronics Stage 2


“If you have an apple and I have an apple and we exchange these apples then you and I will still each have one apple. But if you have an idea and I have an idea and we exchange these ideas, then each of us will have two ideas.” – George Bernard Shaw
This, the second "book" (or App if you prefer) in our series, takes the reader into the realm of simple powersupplies.
It covers:
 AC generation and powertransmission
 Transformers
 Simplified Oscilloscope and Sinusoidal waveforms
 Diodes to get DC from AC
 Capacitors and smoothing a DC voltage
 Putting it all together as a simple Wallwart
The interactivity of this stage is focused on exploring waveforms with a unique pseudo oscilloscope.


After a Preface, which reviews some basic calculations for Resistors, we start trying to get a lowvoltage from a higher one. The ensuing wasteofenergy leads to considering Alternating Current (AC).
Using highvoltage AC we can transmit power over great distances, with Transformers at each end of the cable to change voltages quite easily.


Transformers are not perfect, and their losses are discussed here.
On some pages certain texts are highlighted  touching these "popsup" further information to help your understanding of that subject matter.
RMS (Root Mean Squared) sounds heavy, but understanding it is not hard and its benefits are important.
In this App, our interactive breadboard has gained a builtin oscilloscope, which generates the waveforms to be found at many points in a circuit.
So now we can view several circuits which attempt to get DC from AC


Introducing the capacitor, one of the workhorses of electronics, though we will use them for only a single job in this stage  smoothingout the voltagechanges we got from a bridgerectifier
With their capability of storing a lot of charge, electrolytic capacitors are used for this job, so we glance at their construction and how it differs from lesser beings.
However big the capacitor used, there will still be some changeofvoltage as we draw a current for our load. This is called Ripple, and the calculations for dealing with it are covered.
Putting all we have learned together results in a very simple Wallwart type of power supply.




